This is probably the most famous blunder in go history, for several reasons.
Move 54 hardly looks like a blunder, In fact it would give most of us a nice warm glow. It was played in 1787 between two future 8-dans. Black was Yasui Senchi Senkaku, then 6-dan at age 14, and White was Honinbo Retsugen, 7-dan Although they were both made 8-dan at the same time, Honinbo Shuwa said later that Yasui Senchi - the Father of Modern Go - had no peers.
Still, he and Retsugen missed the killer move. If White 54 attaches instead above 53, Black has to extend out to the right of 53, whereupon Black can play to the right of 52, solving all his ladder problems and demolishing Black.
It was Inoue Genan Inseki who revealed this to the world. In his Igo Myoden he described the scene with the confidence of someone who was not there - he was not even born, in fact: "A 3-dan called Ritcho, sitting at the side of the board, discovered this move. The two players were red-faced and reduced to silence." Of course Genan had an ulterior motive. Ritcho was a member of his own Inoue school, and this tale was all part of his gleeful attempts to rubbish Jowa and the Honinbos, as is revealed by his next comments in which adds that even in the time of Honinbo Dosaku in the past and of Honinbo Jowa in the present, they won seven out of every ten games through their opponent's blunders.
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